About 81346

Only complexity can reduce complexity is a system theoretical rule by the late prominent system thinker Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998).


At the Knowledege Center of Reference Designations, we believe that the necessary complexity which can reduce (any technical) complexity is systems thinking. What this means is that:

(1) Everything can be regarded as a system.
(2) System elements are related by three kinds of relations: Part-of relation, Type-of relation and Pragmatic relation (see ISO 704).
The Part-of relation is used to sub-divide any system into parts, recognised as system elements. This enables unlimited subdivision of complex systems and this is what 81346 part 1 is about.
  The Type-of relation is used to create classes of systems. This is used for recognition of the systems and to prevent information from “growing wild”. This is what the classes in 81346-2 is about.
  The Pragmatic relations presume systems are arranged in part-of relations, and then handles the integration among the systems. This is a positive benefit of working with systems as such.
(3) It is necessary to name or label the systems, so you can recognise them among each other, and this is what the 81346 standard series is about
  • ISO/IEC 81346-1 (2009) makes designations (i.e. labels or TAG’s) for systems which are arranged in part-of relations.
  • Different needs for part-of relations are handled by means of aspects (=/+/-/%).
  • ISO/IEC 81346-2 (2009) is the international classification for technical systems, based on type-of relations. In this regard, we recommend the new 2017 edition